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Population and development

Quality sociodemographic information to make better decisions

Ensuring sustainable development is only possible with evidence-based planning that has the well-being of people as a fundamental concern. For this reason, decision-making processes, both in the public and private sectors, require strategic and reliable information on demographic trends and the characteristics of the population. This contributes to better planning, allocation of financial resources and monitoring of results-based management.

Our Challenge

Recent population trends indicate that Peru is close to completing the demographic transition, and thus it will experience a dramatic change in the age structure of its population (moving from a demographic bonus process, where there is a greater young population of productive age, to a process more marked by population aging). With this, the social demands and needs associated with different age groups change, and consequently multiple challenges and opportunities arise for their development that require attention in the planning of social policies and programs.

Related strategic result of the IX Country Program of UNFPA and the Peruvian State: There is an increase in the availability of evidence on population dynamics for public policies.

Censuses and disaggregated data:

The population census is the pillar of the national statistical system and is an indispensable condition to guarantee knowledge and attention to the needs of the population. The incorporation of the ethnicity variable in the 2017 Peru Census will allow a record and characterization of the different ethnic groups, including indigenous peoples and Afro-descendants. In this way, new evidence will be available to make better decisions in public policy and promote inclusive development policies for the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

The data obtained by the 2017 Census will contribute to a better allocation of public resources, generate new maps of poverty, identify new vulnerable populations, learn about changes in people's living conditions, and update population projections by sex and age, and at the districts, provinces, departments and country level to the year 2050, among other benefits.

Statistics disaggregated by gender have increased and are more accessible to inform political dialogue. For the first time, Peru has estimated the contribution of unpaid domestic work to the national accounting (20.4% of GDP, two-thirds of which is provided by women), based on the National Survey of Time Use.

Demographic bonus:

The demographic bonus is the period in which the proportion of people of productive age is higher than the proportion of dependent people (or of inactive age), which increases the possibilities of improving saving and investment conditions for economic growth. 3 out of 10 Peruvians are adolescents and young people, more than 8 million in total. They comprise a great creative and productive force that can drive the development of the country.


Population ageing is a process that Peru has been going through, originated in the fall in fertility, the decreasing number of births and in which people now live longer. The older adult population (over 60 years old) in Peru exceeds 3 million people (around 10% of the population). In 2050 it is projected to be 8.7 million (about 20% of the population).

4 out of every 10 Peruvian households have at least one elderly person (over 60 years old). 6 out of 10 older adults are heads of the household. The non-monetary contribution of these people stimulates the family economy, contributing to the well-being of the home and the communities.

However, poverty and lack of social protection still affect a large proportion of this population. For today's young people to become well-being older adults, public policies on health, care, employment and social protection are now required.

The Opportunity

Generating and using reliable and timely sociodemographic data is crucial in order to understand and address the specific needs of the various population groups through public policies and relevant programs based on a human rights approach.

Our Strategy

We seek the design, implementation and evaluation of plans, policies and programs to be supported by scientific evidence on demographic changes. We make visible the opportunities and challenges of phenomena such as the demographic bonus, population aging, the behavior of maternal deaths, and the persistence of teenage pregnancy, among others.